While the United States Slept, South America Walked

As published in Volume 24 of the MACLAS (Middle Atlantic Council of Latin American Studies) Latin American Essays (2011), pp. 43-55.

By Thomas Andrew O’Keefe
Stanford University



I. Introduction

Since the terrorist attacks on the United States mainland in September 2001, the strong political and economic influence that the United States once wielded over South America has steadily eroded as a result of rising new global economic powers and a multiplicity of self-inflicted foreign policy fiascos under the Bush administration that forced officials in Washington, D.C. to turn their attention elsewhere in the world. Despite initial promising rhetoric from the Obama administration of a new relationship with the South American continent premised on a partnership, particularly on the issues of energy security and climate change, the loss of influence continues. The United States remains mired in intractable conflicts in Western Asia, its economic recovery tenuous, and a highly partisan political system at the Federal level makes it impossible to achieve a consensus on addressing major issues of importance to the future of not only the country but the planet.

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04/04/10. 08:01:40 pm. Categories: Articles, Latin American Law & Business Report ,

The Role the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Plays within the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM) and in the Caribbean’s Relationship with the World Economy

The Role the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Plays within the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM) and in the Caribbean’s Relationship with the World Economy

Prepared Exclusively for the Annual Conference of the International Studies Association
Latin American and Caribbean Regionalism in the Global Economic Crisis II New Orleans, LA., February 19, 2010

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Introduction
The roots of the Caribbean Common Market and Community (CARICOM) lie in the West Indies Federation (1958-1962) and the Caribbean Free Trade Area (CARIFTA) founded in 1965. The rationale behind the Federation was that the former British colonies in the Caribbean were too small to be viable economic entities on their own.2 London therefore sought to move them to independence as part of a political union. The capital of this new political union would be Port of Spain in Trinidad. Unfortunately, this experiment in political federation proved short-lived, as the two largest territories, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago, jostled with each other to achieve preeminence in the West Indies Federation. In 1961 a plebiscite was held in Jamaica, and a majority of that country’s citizens favored withdrawal. Shortly after the collapse of the West Indies Federation in 1962, initiatives were taken by the United Kingdom, Canada, and the United States to explore the possibility of some form of integration of the small islands of the Eastern Caribbean and Barbados.3 These initiatives led to the creation of the Eastern Caribbean Central Bank. In 1965, the governments of Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, British Guiana, and Trinidad and Tobago signed the Dickenson Bay Agreement to Establish a Caribbean Free Trade Association or CARIFTA.4 This Agreement was amended in 1968 to include other territories in the Caribbean (i.e., Dominica, Grenada, Jamaica, Montserrat, St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla, St. Lucia, and St. Vincent and the Grenadines in 1968, and British Honduras in 1971). As outlined in Article 2 of the Agreement, the objectives of CARIFTA were to:

  1. promote the expansion and diversification of trade;
  2. ensure that trade took place between the member states in conditions of fair competition;
  3. encourage the progressive development of the member economies; and,
  4. foster the harmonious development of Caribbean trade and its liberalization by the removal of barriers.
Tags: caricom, oecs
02/19/10. 06:30:32 pm. Categories: Articles ,

“Free Trade Alternatives in the Western Hemisphere for a New Administration”

Vol. 16, No. 10; Latin American Law & Business Report (September 30, 2008).
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09/30/08. 12:02:54 am. Categories: Articles ,

“Chapter 8: Argentina”

From “Energy Cooperation in the Western Hemisphere: Benefits and Impediments” (Washington, D.C.: The Center for Strategic and International Studies Press, 2007). The full book is available through CSISBookstore.com or by calling (202) 775-3119.
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10/27/07. 12:09:18 am. Categories: Articles ,

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