Putting "Teeth" in the Requirement for Consultation with Indigenous Peoples

Link: https://aulablog.net/2021/10/28/putting-teeth-in-the-requirement-for-consultation-with-indigenous-peoples/

As Posted on American University's Center for Latin American and Latino Studies Blog, October 28, 2021

In no other region of the world have as many countries ratified International Labor Organization Convention 169 – requiring that governments consult Indigenous communities before approving projects that may detrimentally impact them – as Latin America, but human rights due diligence standards adopted by companies involved in investment projects are proving much more effective in guaranteeing adequate and effective consultations rather than government action. This is true even though ILO 169 requires that governments consult with local communities before giving the green light to investment or development projects that affect Indigenous lands, natural resources, and water supplies.

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10/31/21. 06:46:00 am. Categories: Articles ,

South America: Reality Check on Lithium Fantasies

Link: https://aulablog.net/2021/07/14/south-america-reality-check-on-lithium-fantasies/

As posted on American University's Center for Latin American and Latino Studies Blog, July 14, 2021

The urgent need to reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and transition to an energy matrix centered on renewable energy guarantees a steady demand for lithium, but speculation that South America is on the cusp of a lithium boom is premature. The chemical is critical in the production of rechargeable batteries for mobile devices, electric vehicles, and, increasingly, renewable energy storage systems. The so-called Lithium Triangle of Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile holds just over half the world’s currently known lithium deposits, while Brazil and Peru have large amounts of spodumene hard rock that contains lithium.

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07/14/21. 06:35:00 pm. Categories: Articles ,

The Inter-American System in an Era of Declining United States Hegemony

Link: http://doi.org/10.23870/marlas.307

As published in the Middle Atlantic Review of Latin American Studies, Volume 4, Number 2 (2020), pp.194–212.

Author: Thomas Andrew O'Keefe

ABSTRACT

The inter-American system encompasses the institutional and legal framework promoted by the United States of America following the first International Conference of American States in Washington, DC, in 1890 as a means of consolidating US hegemony in the Western Hemisphere. After WW II, it became most identified with the Organization of American States (OAS) and the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance (aka the Rio Treaty). The first significant challenges to US dominance and leadership within the inter-American system appeared in the 1970s and 1980s, although it did not become symptomatic of a wider decline in US hegemony in Latin America until the administration of George W. Bush. In particular, many countries withdrew from the Rio Treaty, refused to participate in the inter-American human rights system, and utilized the OAS to repudiate US foreign policy on Cuba and the “War on Drugs.” Furthermore, new hemispheric organizations appeared such as the Union of South American Nations and the Community of Latin American and Caribbean States that purposefully excluded the United States. During the Obama years, a frustrated US Congress threatened to cut US contributions, while administration officials retreated from taking a proactive role in the OAS. For its part, the Trump government has boycotted hearings of the Inter-American Human Rights Commission and reduced its funding. The article concludes with a discussion of the inter-American system without the domineering presence of the nation which spawned it to promote its own geopolitical priorities, precisely when an effective regional body is crucial for addressing many hemispheric challenges.

ACCESS FULL ARTICLE AT: http://doi.org/10.23870/marlas.307

01/06/21. 10:55:00 pm. Categories: Articles ,

Mexico and Central America: Taking Aim at Corruption in Pharmaceutical Procurement

Link: https://aulablog.net/2020/12/21/mexico-and-central-america-taking-aim-at-corruption-in-pharmaceutical-procurement/

As Posted on American University's Center for Latin American and Latino Studies Blog, December 21, 2020

Under pressure to reduce the cost of medications and medical supplies, the governments of Mexico, Guatemala, and Honduras have resorted to an international facilitator to combat inefficiencies and a lack of transparency in medical procurement while attempting to build their own capacity to manage purchases and reduce related corruption in the future.

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12/22/20. 06:31:00 pm. Categories: Articles ,

New Western Hemisphere Trade Pacts Push Back Against Big Pharma

Link: https://aulablog.net/2020/01/28/new-western-hemisphere-trade-pacts-push-back-against-big-pharma/

As Posted on American University's Center for Latin American and Latino Studies Blog, January 28, 2020

Two major trade agreements affecting the Western Hemisphere have recently struck blows against the pharmaceutical industry’s efforts to keep drug prices high by limiting competition from generic medications. Big Pharma tried, but failed, to include provisions in the United States-Mexico-Canada Agreement (USMCA) and the EU-MERCOSUR Association Agreement that would go beyond those expressly permitted by the World Trade Organization’s Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS).

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01/28/20. 09:03:00 pm. Categories: Articles ,

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